The Power and Limitations of Partials

Partially applied functions, or partials for short, are functions with pre-set arguments. The use of partials is very common in functional programming and has been implemented in several JavaScript libraries and more recently in ECMAScript 5 through Function.prototype.bind. Consider the following examples:

// Adds two numbers
var add = function (a, b) {
return a + b;
// Let's make some partials!
// Underscore.js
var addTwo = _.partial(add, 2);
// Dojo.js
var addFour = lang.partial(add, 4);
// JavaScript 1.8.5
var addSix = add.bind(null, 6);
// Let's use our partials!
console.log(addTwo(1)); // Logs 3
console.log(addFour(3)); // Logs 7
console.log(addSix(5)); // Logs 11

In each of the above examples the original function is not modified -- rather, a new function is created which calls the original function by concatenating the pre-defined arguments with the call-time arguments. JavaScript's bind works a little differently from Underscore's _.partial and Dojo's lang.partial in that its first argument becomes the value of this when the function is called. You will need to use this if you are partially applying instance methods. Underscore and Dojo provide similar functionality through _.bind and lang.hitch respectively. For the sake of simplicity, these functions will not be covered here.

How about a more practical example? Node.js follows a convention for all asynchronous callbacks -- they are expected to take an error argument followed by a result argument. Async.js, a library which provides functions for dealing with asynchronous control flow and collection manipulation, builds upon this convention with functions like parallel and series which take arrays of functions that in turn take nothing but these conventional callbacks. Consider the following examples:

// Without partials
// `done` accepts err, result
function (done) {
fs.readFile('foo.txt', 'utf8', done):
function (done) {
fs.readFile('bar.txt', 'utf8', done):
], function (err, results) {
// err is the first thrown / passed error
// results is an array of results
// With async's own partial implementation
async.apply(fs.readFile, 'foo.txt', 'utf8'),
async.apply(fs.readFile, 'bar.txt', 'utf8')
], function (err, results) {
// same as before

Async provides its own partial implementation by the name of apply which is very similar to Underscore's implementation. By partially applying fs.readFile we are able to shorten the function signature from filename, encoding, callback to just callback enabling us to make an array of partials rather than manually declaring functions as in the first example.

As a side note, you may have noticed that the last argument to Async.parallel is a Node-style callback. If you felt so inclined, you could partially apply Async.parallel and Async.series and pass those partials to other calls to Async.parallel and Async.series, as such:

async.apply(async.parallel, [
// First group of parallel tasks
async.apply(async.parallel, [
// Second group of parallel tasks
function (err, results) {
// err is the same as always
// results is an array of arrays

This code will run a group of tasks in parallel and when they are all done run a second group of tasks in parallel. The final results array will be an array of arrays where each internal array contains the results of each group of tasks. You can easily change up this example to run two groups of serial tasks in parallel by changing all calls to series with parallel and vice versa. This will work for most functions provided by Async.

On to a more practical example, can we read a bunch of files in parallel and only have to write async.apply once? Of course! Enter

['first.txt', 'second.txt', 'foo.txt', 'bar.txt'].map(function (file) {
return async.apply(fs.readFile, file, 'utf8');
function (err, results) {
// Same as before.

In this example calling map on the array of file names returns an array of partially applied fs.readfile functions. Using this technique you can dynamically create a list of files and read them all into memory. Want to limit the amount of files being read at once? That's what parallelLimit is for.


So partials are pretty cool. But you have to be careful about how you use them (in JavaScript). In particular things can get tricky when you partially apply functions which take more arguments than you intend on passing. Consider the following:

// This function multiplies all of its arguments together
var multiply = function () {
return, 0).reduce(function (prev, cur) {
return prev * cur;
}, 1);
// This function multiplies all of its arguments by each other and 2
var mult2 = multiply.bind(null, 2);
// You might expect this to log [2, 4, 6, 8], but it actually logs [NaN, NaN, NaN, NaN]
console.log([1, 2, 3, 4].map(mult2));
// The solution is to explicity call mult2 with the arguments you want to pass
[1, 2, 3, 4].map(function (v) {
return mult2(v);

Really, it's not fair to call this a limitation of partials but JavaScript functions in general -- we would have gotten a similar result had we not made a partial. In my experience this problem appears more often when I am using partials than when I'm not. What is happening here is that the function passed to map takes three arguments: value, index, and array. Our intention is to map each value to 2 * value but instead we end up with 2 * value * index * array. The solution is to explicitly pass the arguments you want into the partial.

Another point to note is that partials usually have a length of 0. This means that they are declared without an arguments list. They still take arguments but anything that checks for a partial's length property will more than likely malfunction. For example, asynchronous tests in Mocha:

// Some sort of function is declared somewhere as such:
var asyncFunc = function (data, callback) {
// do something and call callback per node convention;
// It may be tempting to test it in Mocha as such since the async callback
// will fail the test if an error is passed:
it('should do something without error', asyncFunc.bind(null, 'foobarbaz')); // DON'T DO THIS!
// However, since the partial doesn't have a `length` property the test will
// complete immediately and the callback will be undefined. The solution is to
// explicity declare async test functions:
it('should do something without error', function (done) {
asyncFunc('foobarbaz', done);

To learn more about testing with Mocha check out my article on the subject and the official Mocha documentation.

Kinda Partial-Like Things

Throughout JavaScript and JavaScript libraries you will find various functions which take a function as an argument as well as a parameter list to pass to the function. They aren't returning a partial for you to use, but they are an opportunity for you to avoid the creation of a partial if you don't have to make one. Take for example setTimeout and setInterval:

// Consider the following:
setTimeout(function () {
doSomething(foo, bar, baz);
}, 1000);
// You may think to compress it with a partial as such:
setTimeout(doSomething.bind(null, foo, bar, baz), 1000);
// But this isn't really necessary. The following does the same thing:
setTimeout(doSomething, 1000, foo, bar, baz);
// It also works with setInterval:
setInterval(doSomething, 1000, foo, bar, baz);

In compliant JavaScript environments, the extra arguments passed to setTimeout and setInterval are passed to the function when it is called. Be careful as you can't specify a context this way -- you will have to rely on Function.prototype.bind, _.bind, and lang.hitch for that.


Using partials to adapt existing functions to match a given convention is a very powerful technique. Async provides more functions which when combined with Node conventions and partials can lead to very concise, readable, and maintainable code. That being said, you will still have to be careful in situations where arguments don't match up properly or where you need to specify a special context for the partially applied function.

To the extent possible under law, Ken Powers has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to this website. This work is published from The United States.